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Dissertations

Dissertations

Interpersonal Guilt Studies

  • Bearing witness: Workplace mobbing and the observer's quandary, Anna Shorenstein (2007) abstract
  • Survivor guilt in the first-born mutual child in stepmother stepfamilies, Elizabeth Merrill (2007) abstract
  • Community preparedness: A psychological portrait of the citizen responder, Jaclyn Beckmann Devine (2006) abstract
  • Suicide survivor guilt: The relationship between interpersonal guilt and complicated grief in suicide bereavement, Jill Fischer (2006) abstract
  • Vulnerability to distress and sexual orientation: A comparison of indicators of psychopathology in bisexual, homosexual, and heterosexual women, Sara J. Lieppe (2006) abstract
  • Guilt, Shame, and Grief: An Empirical Study of Perinatal Bereavement, Peter Barr (2004) abstract
  • Psychologists', psychiatrists' and other mental health professionals' use of psychoactive medication and therapy: The ongoing stigma connected to psychological problems and treatment, Karen Godfredsen (2004) abstract
  • Unconscious guilt as an explanation for male genital exhibitionism, Bernard M. Marshall (2004) abstract
  • Interpersonal guilt and self-defeating behavior of foster youth, Rebecca Murray (2004) abstract
  • Sexual masochism, guilt, and the martyr mother phenomenon, Robert C. Steiner (2004) abstract
  • The role of survivor guilt in a gay HIV-negative male therapist who treats a gay HIV-positive male client, Robert Andrew Vargas (2004) abstract
  • Interpersonal guilt, spirituality, and religiosity: An empirical investigation of relationships, Elizabeth Joy Albertsen (2003) abstract
  • An exploration of guilt in families with adolescent anorexia nervosa, Karena Meehan Berghold (2001) abstract
  • The relationship between attachment patterns and guilt in the function of eating disorder symptoms: Can symptoms be proximity-seeking? Catherine A. Orzolek-Kronner (2001) abstract
  • The measurement of sex role guilt in women: A pilot study, Evelyn Sida-Miccio (2001) abstract
  • Guilt, shame, self-image disparity and neurosis, Bonny Joy Shapin (2000) abstract
  • The effects of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program on social skills and interpersonal guilt: A study of delinquent adolescents, Courtney Alexandra Smith (1999) abstract
  • Cultural values, ethnic identity, interpersonal guilt and shame: A comparison of Japanese-Americans and European-Americans , Suzanne Bri Asano (1998) abstract
  • Reliability and Validity of an adolescent version of interpersonal guilt questionaire, Kathleen Anne Mulherin (1998) abstract
  • Anger and depression among incarcerated juvenile deliquents: A pilot intervention, Jen Emily Tellier (1998) abstract
  • Trauma and recidivism to prison: What's guilt got to do with it? Martha Sweezy
    Smith College School of Social Work (1997) abstract
  • Multiple loss and grief in HIV positive and HIV negative gay men: Catastrophic survivor guilt, proneness to survivor guilt, and coping, Cida Jimenez-Sheppard (1997) abstract
  • Interpersonal guilt and eating disorder symptomatology in college women, Natasha Anne Vilas (1996) abstract
  • The relationship between attributional style and interpersonal guilt, Andrew R. Menaker (1995) abstract

Other Studies

  • Discrepancy from the ideal: An exploratory study of the associations between body image and social status, Alexandria Leedy (2006) abstract
  • Positive psychology and psychotherapists, Charlotte Tilson (2006) abstract
  • Pilot study of a new hospital suicide risk assessment measure, Emily Diamond (2004) abstract
  • A dose-response study of control mastery therapy, Jane Leslie Weisbin (2003) abstract
  • Sexual relationships between supervisors and supervisees during psychology graduate training, Leslie Wilson Caldwell (2002) abstract
  • A survey of psychologists' attitudes, opinions, and clinical experiences with animal abuse, Pauline Nelson (2002) abstract
  • The relationship between gender traits, sex role egalitarian attitudes, attachment styles, and life satisfaction, Joseph Martin Smith (1998) abstract

Other Papers

  • The Relationship Between Religion, Spirituality, and Guilt, Ian Middelkamp (2008) abstract

Abstracts

Bearing witness: Workplace mobbing and the observer's quandary
Anna Shorenstein
Wright Institute
2007
Abstract
This study was designed to focus on the experiences of people who witness direct and indirect aggression aimed at targets of workplace bullying and mobbing. One hundred and seventy four participants were assigned to one of three hypothetical scenarios that differed in the degree to which a manager was either implicitly hostile towards the target (Amy), explicitly hostile towards her, or empathic towards her, when she arranged a private meeting to discuss her experiences being mobbed by her colleagues at work. Participants were asked to describe what they thought a coworker (Robin) might think, feel, and do after witnessing Amy being mobbed. A rating scale was created to predict the likelihood that Robin might help Amy, feel suspicious of her personality, feel guilty towards her, and attribute her circumstances more to the situation or to her disposition. It was hypothesized that the scenario in which the manager was empathic towards Amy would elicit greater predictions that Robin might help Amy than when the manager was either implicitly hostile or explicitly hostile towards Amy. Results showed that the scenario groups only differed on the Guilt category of the rating scale (F = 12.40, p < .0005), with the prediction for the Explicitly Hostile Scenario having the highest mean. Additional analyses examined the correlations of the scenario group ratings with each other, with the Interpersonal Reactivity Inventory (Davis, 1980), and the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire-67 (IGQ-67; O'Connor, Berry, Weiss, Bush, & Sampson, 1997). Predictions that Robin might help Amy were correlated with predictions that she would feel less suspicious of Amy, feel less guilt towards her, and attribute her circumstances more to the situation. Only the Self-Hate subscale of the IGQ and the Personal Distress subscale of the IRI significantly correlated with scenario group ratings, with both being associated with predictions that Robin would be less likely to help Amy. These results suggest that when workplace bullying and mobbing are supported by a hostile manager, observers may feel greater guilt towards the targets because they are afraid of intervening. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are explored.

Survivor guilt in the first-born mutual child in stepmother stepfamilies.
Elizabeth Merrill
Wright Institute
2007
Abstract
This study was designed to focus on the experiences of people who witness direct and indirect aggression aimed at targets of workplace bullying and mobbing. One hundred and seventy four participants were assigned to one of three hypothetical scenarios that differed in the degree to which a manager was either implicitly hostile towards the target (Amy), explicitly hostile towards her, or empathic towards her, when she arranged a private meeting to discuss her experiences being mobbed by her colleagues at work. Participants were asked to describe what they thought a coworker (Robin) might think, feel, and do after witnessing Amy being mobbed. A rating scale was created to predict the likelihood that Robin might help Amy, feel suspicious of her personality, feel guilty towards her, and attribute her circumstances more to the situation or to her disposition. It was hypothesized that the scenario in which the manager was empathic towards Amy would elicit greater predictions that Robin might help Amy than when the manager was either implicitly hostile or explicitly hostile towards Amy. Results showed that the scenario groups only differed on the Guilt category of the rating scale (F = 12.40, p < .0005), with the prediction for the Explicitly Hostile Scenario having the highest mean. Additional analyses examined the correlations of the scenario group ratings with each other, with the Interpersonal Reactivity Inventory (Davis, 1980), and the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire-67 (IGQ-67; O'Connor, Berry, Weiss, Bush, & Sampson, 1997). Predictions that Robin might help Amy were correlated with predictions that she would feel less suspicious of Amy, feel less guilt towards her, and attribute her circumstances more to the situation. Only the Self-Hate subscale of the IGQ and the Personal Distress subscale of the IRI significantly correlated with scenario group ratings, with both being associated with predictions that Robin would be less likely to help Amy. These results suggest that when workplace bullying and mobbing are supported by a hostile manager, observers may feel greater guilt towards the targets because they are afraid of intervening. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are explored.

Community preparedness: A psychological portrait of the citizen responder
Jaclyn Beckmann Devine
Argosy University, San Francisco Bay Area
2006
Abstract
There have been numerous catastrophes in recent history that have caused a number of American citizens to join CERT (Community Emergency Response Team) a government-funded training program that enhances the public's ability to recognize, prepare for, respond to, and recover from large-scale emergencies or disasters (Nassau County Office of Emergency Management [NC-OEM]). Community Preparedness: A Psychological Portrait of the Citizen Responder, by Jaclyn Beckmann Devine, was a quantitative study intended to assess a population of CERTs (46 females; 45 males) for trauma symptomology, survivor guilt, omnipotent responsibility guilt, and personality styles. The study tested 10' hypotheses based on the rationale that people who participate in CERT suffer from survivor guilt and as away to resolve that guilt, they altruistically volunteer to help society. A sample of Nassau County, New York; CERTs (N = 91) volunteered and was administered a demographic questionnaire, the Millon Index of Personality Styles - Revised (MIPS-R; Millon, 2004), the Trauma Symptoms Inventory (TSI; Briere & PAR, 1995), and the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ-67; O'Conner et al., 1997). Results indicate that the sample population exhibited personality styles categorized by personality trait groups such as Actively Modifying, Other-Nurturing, and Externally Focused (Millon, 2004). The sample population also exhibited trauma symptoms, correlating with significant levels of survivor guilt ( p value <.0005). Results also indicate that the sample population exhibited omnipotent responsibility guilt (p value <.0005). Results are suggestive, and further research is needed before conclusions can be made connecting previous trauma and survivor guilt to social action. Overall, the study was small and had significant limitations that impede conclusive results. The results that were found are worthy of noting, however, and support future research in the field of Disaster psychology, specifically as pertaining to citizen response and CERT. Furthermore, despite results being tentative, citizen responders and the CERT program training curriculum should consider the impact of psychological functioning on citizen response and community preparedness. In extent, it is recommended that the training curriculum include a more in depth psychological module with psycho-educational components such as defining trauma, vicarious trauma, offering coping strategies, and debriefing practices.

Suicide survivor guilt: The relationship between interpersonal guilt and complicated grief in suicide bereavement
Jill Fischer
Wright Institute
2006
Abstract
The term "suicide survivor" denotes family members and close friends who are left to suffer in the wake of suicide. Current estimations count a staggering 4.47 million suicide survivors in this country, with 186,000 new survivors each year. Only recently has empirically based research been conducted on suicide bereavement, and many of the current studies have contradictory findings and are weakened by various methodological problems. While guilt is thought to be one of the most intense aspects of suicide bereavement, research has also yielded contradictory findings regarding the prevalence, nature, and impact of guilt for suicide survivors. This study aims to identify how to better help suicide survivors through what can often be a difficult and painful mourning process by determining whether a positive relationship exists between complicated grief and unconscious, interpersonal guilt, as defined by Control Mastery Theory. Two hundred and fifty suicide survivors completed the following: (a) a brief demographic and informational questionnaire; (b) the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG-R); (c) the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire-67 (IGQ-67); and (d) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). The results of the present study supported all hypotheses; overall interpersonal guilt contributed an additional 6% of the variance of participants' complicated grief scores, after the effects of depression were removed, R 2 = .34, F(2, 247) = 65.55, p < .0001. In addition, higher levels of complicated grief were noted for participants who were recruited from online resources specific to suicide survivors; those who had a lower level of education; those who had experienced a suicide relatively recently; those who were spouses and parents of individuals who committed suicide; those who had more frequent contact with the deceased before the suicide; and those who had greater perceived closeness to the deceased before the suicide. Further analyses of variables relating to attachment to the deceased revealed significant positive relationships between frequency of contact and separation guilt as well as perceived closeness and both survivor and omnipotent responsibility guilt. The implications of the results are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

Vulnerability to distress and sexual orientation: A comparison of indicators of psychopathology in bisexual, homosexual, and heterosexual women
Sara J. Lieppe
Wright Institute
2006
Abstract
This study compares indicators of psychopathology in homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual women. While some believe that homosexuals do not experience any more mental health problems than do heterosexuals, others have suggested that homosexuals have higher rates of psychopathology. Little data exists regarding bisexuals' mental health. This study makes use of archival data collected by O'Connor, Lewis, and Berry (2005) in a study of attributes suggesting low levels of serotonin and/or dopamine, and psychological disorders and distress. The study was internet-based; no identifying information was gathered. In the present study, self-identified bisexual, homosexual and heterosexual women were compared on measures of psychopathology and personality. Demographic information gathered included, but was not exclusive to, ethnicity, current psychiatric disorders, psychoactive medications, religion, and years of education. Results demonstrated no differences between homosexual and heterosexual women on any of the variables. Bisexual women, however, scored significantly higher than did heterosexual women on Low-Serotonin, Depression, Survivor Guilt, and Neuroticism, and they scored significantly higher than did homosexual women on Low-Serotonin, Depression, and Neuroticism. These results suggest that bisexual women may be at higher risk for psychopathology. In prior research, homosexuals and bisexuals commonly were collapsed into one category and then compared to heterosexual women. The results from this study demonstrate the importance of recognizing and identifying a group that may be facing a unique set of problems and social conditions. If comparisons are to yield accurate and useful data, homosexual and bisexual women need to be categorized separately. Bisexual women may be confronted with greater social isolation, in addition to discrimination, without the benefit of belonging to an identified, though stigmatized, group. They may be facing a unique set of problems that thus far have not been identified or examined. These results demonstrate the need for further study that is specifically designed to better understand the social factors contributing to the vulnerability bisexual women may be facing. The social isolation, discrimination, and neglect experienced by this group may have prevented them from receiving supportive and effective treatment, with attention to their unique problems and particular needs.

Guilt, Shame, and Grief: An Empirical Study of Perinatal Bereavement
Peter Barr
Centre for Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney
2004
Abstract
Aim. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship of personality guilt- and shame-proneness to grief and psychological dysphoria following bereavement due to stillbirth or death in the newborn period. Methods. Participating parents completed self-report questionnaire measures of proneness to situational guilt and shame (Test of Self-Conscious Affect-2), chronic guilt and shame (Personal Feelings Questionnaire-2) and interpersonal guilt (Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire-67), grief (Perinatal Grief Scale-33) and psychological dysphoria (General Health Questionnaire-28) one month (early, N = 158) and 13 months (late, N = 149) after a perinatal death. Results. Women compared with men self-reported more intense grief, anxiety and depression one month after the death, but there were no significant sex differences in grief or psychological dysphoria one year later. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that composite shame (situational and chronic) explained a small but statistically significant proportion of the variance in early total grief (adjusted R2 = .09) and anxiety (adjusted R2 = .07) in women, and early total grief (adjusted R2 = .19), anxiety (adjusted R2 = .13) and depression (adjusted R2 = .10) in men. Composite guilt (situational, chronic and interpersonal) controlled for shame did not make a significant further contribution to the variance in early total grief, anxiety or depression in either sex. Composite shame explained not only significant but meaningful proportions of the variance in late grief (adjusted R2 = .27), anxiety (adjusted R2 = .21) and depression (adjusted R2 = .27) in women, and late grief (adjusted R2 = .56), anxiety (adjusted R2 = .30) and depression (adjusted R2 = .51) in men. Composite guilt controlled for shame made significant further contributions to the variance 13 in late grief (?R2 = .21), anxiety (?R2 = .16) and depression (?R2 = .25) in women, and late grief (?R2 = .11) in men. Shame and guilt together explained a substantial proportion of the variance in late grief (adjusted R2 = .45), anxiety (adjusted R2 = .33) and depression (adjusted R2 = .49) in women, and late grief (adjusted R2 = .64), anxiety (adjusted R2 = .35) and depression (adjusted R2 = .56) in men. Situational shame, chronic guilt and survivor guilt made positive unique contributions to the variance in late grief in women. Chronic shame and survivor guilt made unique contributions to the variance in late grief in men. Situational guilt made a significant unique negatively valenced contribution to the variance in late grief in women. Early composite shame, but not guilt, predicted late grief, anxiety and depression in men. Early composite shame and/or guilt did not predict late grief, anxiety or depression in women. Conclusion. Personality proneness to shame was more relevant to late grief, anxiety and depression in men than in women, but survivor guilt was equally important to late grief in both sexes. Chronic guilt and functional situational guilt were pertinent to late grief, anxiety and depression in women, but not in men. Personality shame- and guilt-proneness have important relationships with parental grief after perinatal death that have not hitherto been recognised.

Psychologists', psychiatrists' and other mental health professionals' use of psychoactive medication and therapy: The ongoing stigma connected to psychological problems and treatment
Karen Godfredsen
Wright Institute
2004
Abstract
A group of 152 psychologists, psychiatrists and students in mental health professions were studied to determine the prevalence of mental health problems and treatment among clinicians, to assess clinicians' level of comfort with disclosure of their personal experiences in a variety of settings, and to solicit qualitative data related to stigma and disclosure of use of psychotropic medication and psychotherapy. In particular, it was predicted that clinicians would report less openness about their use of psychotropic medication than their participation in psychotherapy. Results indicated that 95% of clinicians in the sample had experienced mental health problems, with depression, anxiety and adjustment disorder appearing as the most commonly reported diagnoses. With regards to treatment, 84% had at some time participated in psychotherapy, and 57% had taken psychotropic medication at some time. Forty percent of those taking medication reported ostracization by colleagues as a result of disclosure and 30% reported damage to their professional reputation. As expected, mean comfort with disclosure ratings were significantly higher (p < .001) for disclosure of psychotherapy than for disclosure of use of psychotropic medication, particularly in professional settings (p < .0001). Psychologists reported significantly fewer fears and negative experiences with regards to disclosure than did psychiatrists or students (p < .05). Additionally, women were found to be significantly more likely to disclose their participation in psychotherapy to both friends, colleagues and supervisors (p < .01).

Unconscious guilt as an explanation for male genital exhibitionism
Bernard M. Marshall
Smith College School for Social Work
2004
Abstract
This exploratory study investigated the role of unconscious guilt in the development and maintenance of male genital exhibitionism. A series of four case studies were retrospectively examined for the role played by unconscious guilt. The cases were initially approached and formulated using psychoanalytic drive theory as a theoretical model, but it was empirically discovered that shame and guilt played a significant role in the development of the disorder in these cases. The relief of the feelings and resolution of the behavior through a therapeutic process that included an element of forgiveness further suggested a significant role for shame and guilt. The cases were retrospectively examined using the framework of control mastery theory, and the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire was used to measure several domains of guilt in these subjects. In addition, the General Ability Measure for Adults IQ test, the Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory-2, and structured clinical interviews were used to further describe and profile these subjects. The results support the hypothesis that unconscious guilt is associated with male genital exhibitionism and unexpectedly reveal that sexual trauma may be an important cause of unconscious guilt and the generation of exhibitionistic behavior in these subjects. The findings challenge psychoanalytic drive theory that sees the behavior resulting primarily from disguised aggression expressed in sexual behavior. This work raises questions about the correct theoretical model for this behavior, and calls for further clinical research to illuminate the role of unconscious guilt in the development of compulsive sexual behaviors.

Interpersonal guilt and self-defeating behavior of foster youth
Rebecca Murray
Wright Institute
2004
Abstract
This study examined relationships between levels of interpersonal guilt, self-defeating behaviors and early life outcomes in 43 young adults between 18 and 30 years old who lived in long-term foster care for at least two years. The data for this study were collected largely online from participants who were recruited through agencies working with emancipated foster youth, and through ads placed in former foster youth-oriented publications and websites. Interpersonal Guilt was measured through the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ-67: O'Connor, Berry, Weiss, Bush & Sampson, 1997). Self-defeating behaviors while in foster care was assessed by participants' self-report of past self-defeating behaviors. Current self-defeating behaviors were measured through the Self-Defeating Personality Scale (SDPS: Schill, 1990). Current life satisfaction was measured by the Satisfaction With Life scale (SWLS: Deiner, 1985). Other indicators of current life outcomes included self-report of financial, material and social support resources. Hardiness, a set of psychological traits found to correlated with improved life outcomes, was measured via the Hardiness Scale (HS: Bartone, Ursano, Wright & Ingraham, 1989). The results of this study found that Survivor, Omnipotent, Separation Guilt and Self-Hate were all significantly associated with current self-defeating behavior as measured on the SDPS. Survivor Guilt and Self-Hate were also both significantly associated with past self-defeating behaviors. Individuals higher in proneness to all four types of interpersonal guilt tended to score lower on measures of Hardiness. Separation Guilt was associated with less satisfaction with life, lower incomes, and lower levels of education. Self-Hate was associated with less satisfaction with life, and fewer social supports. Survivor Guilt was significantly related to reported worry about biological father and siblings while in foster care. Finally, mean levels of Separation Guilt and Omnipotent Responsibility Guilt in former foster youth were significantly less than reported norms.

Sexual masochism, guilt, and the martyr mother phenomenon
Robert C. Steiner
Alliant International University, San Francisco
2004
Abstract
This study examined associations between sexual masochism, interpersonal guilt, and the martyr mother phenomenon. The martyr mother is unhappy, depressed, and conveys these feelings to her children who often feel responsible for her unhappiness. Participants were 21 men, 47 women, and 4 with no gender reported, recruited from a sadomasochistic community and a general adult population, ages ranging from 21 to 69 with mean of 36 years, from mixed ethnic backgrounds, and different levels of education. 40 were heterosexual, 18 bisexual, 7 homosexual, 2 lesbian, 2 other, and 3 who provided no information about orientation. Participants were administered the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire (SFQ, which measures the frequency of masochistic and sadistic fantasies/behaviors providing a masochism and sadism score. They also completed the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ-67), which includes a subscale of Survivor Guilt, Separation Guilt, Omnipotent Responsibility Guilt and Self-hate; and the Parental Questionnaire (PQ), which asks participants to write narratives describing their parents. Experienced clinicians rated these narratives using The Parental Rating Scale-R (PRS-R) to quantify the degree of martyrdom. Participants rated their parents on martyr-like qualities using The Parental Rating Scale (PRS). Contrary to prediction, no correlation was found between sexual masochism and the martyr mother phenomenon. In males, however, the martyr father was found to have a non-significant correlation with sexual masochism. Furthermore both the martyr mother and martyr father were non-significantly correlated with sexual sadism in males. The martyr mother significantly predicted Self-hate (r = .30), a subscale of the IGQ-67 measuring negative self-cognitions, correlated with depression in prior studies. This suggests that the martyr mother phenomenon might be a correlate of psychological masochism. A negative correlation between the guilt subscales on the IGQ-67 and sexual masochism was found, in contrast to expectations, perhaps reflecting an overgeneralization of the term “masochism.” This study suggests that people participating in sexual masochistic fantasies/behaviors are low in interpersonal guilt, whereas guilt-prone people are unlikely to engage in sexual masochism. Self-hate was not correlated with sexual masochism suggesting less association with psychological problems than is often assumed.

The role of survivor guilt in a gay HIV-negative male therapist who treats a gay HIV-positive male client
Robert Andrew Vargas
Wright Institute
2004
Abstract
The present study examines the levels of survivor guilt in gay HIV-negative male therapists who treat gay HIV-positive male clients. Gay HIV-negative male therapists were recruited as volunteer subjects from counseling centers in San Francisco and New York City. Three instruments were used in the study: the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ), the Survivor Guilt Questionnaire (SGQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The main hypothesis was that the subjects would report experiencing survivor guilt when working with HIV-positive gay male clients. Another hypothesis is that the survivor guilt subscale of the SGQ would positively correlate with the survivor guilt subscale of the IGQ. It was also hypothesized that the guilt subscore of the BDI would positively correlate with both the survivor guilt subscore of the IGQ and the survivor guilt subscore of the SGQ. Another hypothesis is that for HIV-negative gay male therapists, years of clinical experience would negatively correlate with his subscore of survivor guilt on the SGQ and IGQ.

Interpersonal guilt, spirituality, and religiosity: An empirical investigation of relationships
Elizabeth Joy Albertsen
Wright Institute
2003
Abstract
The relationships between guilt and spirituality and religiosity were examined. The main hypothesis was that spirituality, measured by the Mysticism Scale (M-Scale) would be positively correlated with adaptive guilt, measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), but negatively correlated with maladaptive interpersonal guilt, measured by the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ-67). It was hypothesized that spiritual transcendence, measured by the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS), would be positively correlated with spiritual experience, measured by the M-Scale, and that spiritual transcendence would have a negative correlation with maladaptive interpersonal guilt. There was not support for a significant relationship between spiritual experience and adaptive guilt. There was support for a negative relationship between spiritual experience and maladaptive interpersonal guilt. Strong positive correlations were found between spiritual experience and spiritual transcendence. There were mixed results regarding the relationship between spiritual transcendence and maladaptive interpersonal guilt. No support was found for a relationship between spirituality and subjective well-being. There was support for a positive correlation between religiosity and adaptive guilt. There was not support for a direct relationship between religiosity and maladaptive interpersonal guilt. There was evidence of a positive relationship between adherence to religious creed and adaptive guilt, but there were mixed results for the relationship between adherence to creed and maladaptive interpersonal guilt. Subjective well being did not have a significant relationship with adaptive guilt, but there was support for a negative correlation between subjective well-being and maladaptive interpersonal guilt. Post hoc analyses tested for confounds of age, gender, ethnic group, religious affiliation, experience of religion in the childhood home, and change of religious affiliation.

An exploration of guilt in families with adolescent anorexia nervosa
Karena M. Berghold
Wright Institute
2001
Abstract
The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal guilt, conflict, and independence in families with adolescent anorexia nervosa. Subjects for this study agreed to participate in a larger clinical trial involving manualized outpatient family therapy treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa developed by James Lock, M.D., Ph.D. Families were recruited from an affiliated eating disorder clinic as well as from additional outside referral sources. Adolescents were asked to complete the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ-69) (Mulherin, 1998). Parents were asked to complete the adult version of the IGQ (IGQ-67), (O'Connor, Berry, Weiss, Bush, & Sampson, 1997) and the Family Environment Scale (FES), (Moos, 1974). It was expected that adolescents with anorexia nervosa would score higher on guilt than the historical comparison group of adolescents. For the self-hate subscale of the IGQ this proved to be the case. Adolescents with anorexia nervosa were significantly higher in self-hate than the comparison group of adolescents. It was anticipated that parents in this study would also score higher on guilt than the comparison group of adults. This hypothesis was not borne out. Parents did not display elevated guilt on any subscale. In fact, on survivor guilt, parents scored significantly lower than the historical sample of adults. It was also expected that a positive correlation would be found between female adolescent guilt and maternal guilt. Findings did not support this hypothesis. The final hypothesis predicted a positive correlation between familial conflict and adolescent self-hate and the results of this study supported this hypothesis.

The relationship between attachment patterns and guilt in the function of eating disorder symptoms: Can symptoms be proximity-seeking?
Catherine A. Orzolek-Kronner,
Smith College School for Social Work
2001
Abstract
The relationship among attachment quality, guilt, and the development of eating disorders was investigated with three groups of adolescent females from various settings. Forty-four individuals with eating disorders, 28 clinical controls, and 36 non-clinical controls were included in this study. Through the use of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment and the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, it was found that both clinical groups demonstrated a weaker sense of attachment quality compared to their non-clinical counterparts. The Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, derived from Weiss and Sampson's (1986) control mastery theory, was used to measure guilt among the groups. It was expected that adolescents with eating disorders would demonstrate more separation and survivor guilt; however, the eating disorders group showed significantly more self-hate guilt and only a marginally significant amount of survivor guilt. No significant differences were found in regards to separation guilt. Finally, this study expanded upon Bowlby's (1969, 1973, 1980) concept of proximity seeking, to offer a possible explanation of the function of eating disorder symptomatology. A new measure, the Proximity Seeking Scale was developed by this author and found that changes in both the physical and psychological proximity of those with eating disorders had changed since the identified onset of the disorder.

The measurement of sex role guilt in women: A pilot study
Evelyn Sida-Miccio
Wright Institute
2001
Abstract
The present study examines the relationship between sex roles and guilt in women. The purpose of this pilot study was to define, operationalize and measure the construct of sex role guilt which is based on an interpersonal theory of guilt. The psychometric properties of the Sex Role Guilt Questionnaire-33 (SRG-33), an instrument designed to measure the construct of sex role guilt, were evaluated to assess its adequacy. The SRG-33 was found to be internally consistent and data showed preliminary evidence for construct validity of the SRG-33. As predicted, the SRG-33 was significantly positively correlated with the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ-67). The SRG-33 was significantly negatively correlated with the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) masculinity scale. Contrary to predictions, the BSRI femininity scale was not correlated with the SRG-33. Demographic variables such as education level, income and religious orientation were analyzed, with no statistically significant findings.

The effects of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program on social skills and interpersonal guilt: A study of delinquent adolescents
Courtney Alexandra Smith
Wright Institute
1999
Abstract
This study examined the effects of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral prevention program on the social skills and interpersonal guilt of delinquent adolescents. 62 adolescents incarcerated at a juvenile detention center in a major metropolitan area were invited to participate in the study based on their date of incarceration, and the 56 adolescents who ultimately participated were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. The 12-week prevention program that was utilized was the Penn Prevention Program, which consists of a cognitive component and a social problem-solving component, and which was developed to teach at-risk children and adolescents a broad range of coping strategies in order to help them begin to gain a sense of mastery and competence when confronted with a variety of potentially adverse life events. The Penn Prevention Program has proven effective in significantly reducing depression and improving conduct among children and adolescents from the Philadelphia schools who were considered to be "at-risk" based on their depressive symptoms and perceptions of parental conflict. This study represented the first use of the Penn Prevention Program with incarcerated adolescents, and hypothesized that subjects participating in the prevention program would demonstrate greater positive changes in social skills and interpersonal guilt than subjects in the no treatment control group. In addition, it was expected that there would be a negative relationship between social skills and interpersonal guilt among all subjects at pre-test. Additional post-hoc analyses expLored potential relationships between demographic data, social skills, and interpersonal guilt. The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Youngsters (MESSY) was utilized to measure social skills, and the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire for Adolescents (IGQ-A) was utilized to measure levels of interpersonal guilt. No significant changes in social skills or interpersonal guilt were found as a result of treatment, yet significant relationships between demographic data, social skills, and interpersonal guilt were revealed. Findings provide important information regarding future research and treatment efforts with incarcerated youth.

Guilt, shame, self-image disparity and neurosis
Bonny Joy Shapin
Wright Institute
2000
Abstract
According to psychoanalytic theory, an excessive disparity between one's actual self-image and one's ideal self-image is associated with painful feelings of shame and guilt and with neurotic symptoms. In contrast, the cognitive-developmental perspective suggests that a greater self-image disparity is indicative of psychological and social adjustment. This study of 125 undergraduates examined the interrelationships among guilt, shame, self-image disparity and neurotic trends. Self-image disparity, as measured by the K-Z Self-Image Scale, was not found to be related to shame or to guilt. Self-image disparity was found to be significantly inversely correlated to neuroticism, as measured by the Neuroticism Scale Questionnaire (NSQ). A greater self-image disparity was found to be associated with Alpha Pride (pride in self), Beta Pride (pride in behavior) and Detachment/Unconcern on The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA). These findings support the cognitive-developmental perspective which suggests a greater self-image disparity is related to psychological adjustment. Secondarily, this study investigated how shame and various subcategories of guilt relate to neurosis in a college population. As predicted, the Survivor Guilt subscale of the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ) and Trait Guilt subscale of the Guilt Inventory (GI) were found to have the strongest relationship to neuroticism (NSQ). Shame, as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect was found to be less related to neuroticism than proneness to interpersonal guilt. These findings support the psychoanalytic emphasis on guilt as central to understanding psychopathology, particularly neurosis. Guilt may become maladaptive and inhibit normal development when individuals continue to feel guilt beyond immediate circumstances, feel overly responsible for the welfare of others and experience survivor guilt for not being able to save others. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

The effects of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program on social skills and interpersonal guilt: A study of delinquent adolescents
Courtney Alexandra Smith
Wright Institute
1999
Abstract
This study examined the effects of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral prevention program on the social skills and interpersonal guilt of delinquent adolescents. 62 adolescents incarcerated at a juvenile detention center in a major metropolitan area were invited to participate in the study based on their date of incarceration, and the 56 adolescents who ultimately participated were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. The 12-week prevention program that was utilized was the Penn Prevention Program, which consists of a cognitive component and a social problem-solving component, and which was developed to teach at-risk children and adolescents a broad range of coping strategies in order to help them begin to gain a sense of mastery and competence when confronted with a variety of potentially adverse life events. The Penn Prevention Program has proven effective in significantly reducing depression and improving conduct among children and adolescents from the Philadelphia schools who were considered to be "at-risk" based on their depressive symptoms and perceptions of parental conflict. This study represented the first use of the Penn Prevention Program with incarcerated adolescents, and hypothesized that subjects participating in the prevention program would demonstrate greater positive changes in social skills and interpersonal guilt than subjects in the no treatment control group. In addition, it was expected that there would be a negative relationship between social skills and interpersonal guilt among all subjects at pre-test. Additional post-hoc analyses expLored potential relationships between demographic data, social skills, and interpersonal guilt. The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Youngsters (MESSY) was utilized to measure social skills, and the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire for Adolescents (IGQ-A) was utilized to measure levels of interpersonal guilt. No significant changes in social skills or interpersonal guilt were found as a result of treatment, yet significant relationships between demographic data, social skills, and interpersonal guilt were revealed. Findings provide important information regarding future research and treatment efforts with incarcerated youth.

Cultural values, ethnic identity, interpersonal guilt and shame: A comparison of Japanese-Americans and European-Americans
Suzanne Bri Asano
Wright Institute
1998
Abstract
The present study compared the cultural values, ethnic identity, and self-conscious emotions of 114 Japanese Americans and 110 European Americans from the metro areas of Denver, San Francisco, New York, and Chicago. The purpose of the research was to examine the effects that different cultural value orientations and levels of ethnic identification have on interpersonal guilt and shame. Five instruments were used in the study: the Individualism and Collectivism Scale (INDCOL), Interdependence/Independence Scale (II Scale), Ethnocultural Identity Behavioral Index (EIBI), Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ-67), and the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA). As predicted, Japanese Americans had significantly higher levels of collectivism (i.e., vertical collectivism) and interdependence (i.e., maintaining self-other bonds) than European Americans. Though no difference was predicted, European Americans had significantly higher levels of individualism and independence than Japanese Americans. Ethnic group differences expected for interpersonal guilt showed mixed results. When compared to European Americans, Japanese Americans had significantly higher levels of separation guilt and self-hate. Survivor guilt was higher but only approached significant levels. The ethnic group differences in survivor guilt and separation guilt appeared to be due to collectivism. Surprisingly, this investigation failed to show any ethnic group differences for shame. Collectivism and interdependence had a significant positive relationship to interpersonal guilt and shame. No relationship was found between ethnic identity and shame in either group. There was a significant positive relationship between ethnic identity and interpersonal guilt in the Japanese-American sample only. However, when regressed with collectivism, ethnic identity was no longer significant. Therefore, it was not ethnic identification per se that predicted survivor guilt and separation guilt, but the degree to which the ethnic identification implied that collectivism was important. Interpersonal guilt was not related to ethnic identity independent of the collectivistic values of the ethnic group with which they identified. In other words, what mattered most in predicting interpersonal guilt was identification with the group that was higher in collectivism.

Reliability and Validity of an adolescent version of interpersonal guilt questionaire
Kathleen Anne Mulherin
Wright Institute
1998
Abstract
The aim of this study is to establish reliability and validity for an adolescent version of the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, a reliable and validated measure with four subscales of various kinds of guilt, including Survivor Guilt, Separation Guilt, Omnipotent Responsibility Guilt and Self-Hate. The adolescent version of the questionnaire (IGQ-Adol) consists of 69 statements, slightly revised for easier comprehension by adolescents, accompanied by a five-point Likert scale. The questionnaire was administered along with The Test of Self Conscious Affect, the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to 330 high school students in two schools, one public, one private. The instrument was found to be reliable, with reliabilities similar to those found with the adult IGQ. Significant correlations were found between all four subscales of the IGQ-Adol and the validating measures. Separation Guilt, however, correlated only with the Guilt and Shame subscales of the Test of Self Conscious Affect for Adolescents (TOSCA-A). Additionally, neither Separation Guilt nor Omnipotent Responsibility Guilt correlated with the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ). There was a pattern of significant differences between ethnicities in the study, with Asian students scoring significantly higher than African-Americans and European-Americans on all measures except on the Children's Depression Inventory and the CASQ for Positive Events, and higher than students from Spanish-speaking families on Omnipotence Guilt, explanatory style for negative events and adaptive guilt on the TOSCA-A. Results suggest cultural differences may underlie these patterns. Gender differences appeared on several measures, with girls scoring significantly higher on Survivor Guilt, Omnipotent Responsibility Guilt, explanatory style for positive events, as well as on total explanatory style and on adaptive guilt.

Anger and depression among incarcerated juvenile deliquents: A pilot intervention
Jen Emily Tellier
California School of Professional Psychology
1998
Abstract
This study of incarcerated juvenile delinquents used a pre- and post-test approach for evaluating the efficacy of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral program in the reduction of anger and depression. Comparisons were made between treatment and control groups that totaled 62 adolescents. The treatment used was the Penn Prevention Program which has previously been found to prevent the development of depression among adolescents at-risk for depression. Instruments used included the Novaco Anger Scale, Child Depression Inventory, Jones Irrational Beliefs Test, and Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire - Adolescent. Study participants were expected to be moderately depressed. Instead, responses to the CDI at pre-test indicated low levels of depression. Levels of anger were significantly higher than those of the nearest age-related normative population of non-incarcerated college students. Irrational beliefs and guilt were comparable to those of non-incarcerated high school students. Though findings were not statistically significant, differences between the treatment group and control group were in the predicted direction suggesting a preventative pattern might be found with a larger sample size.

Trauma and recidivism to prison: What's guilt got to do with it?
Martha Sweezy
Smith College School of Social Work
1997
Abstract
This study investigated two hypotheses based on Control-Mastery theory: (1) women with histories of child and/or adult abuse (neglect, physical or sexual abuse, or any combination) who recidivate to prison have higher levels of maladaptive guilt than non-recidivists with a similar history; and, (2) women with abuse histories who recidivate are more symptomatic than women with similar histories who do not recidivate. Participants were 44 recidivists currently serving time, and a control group of 12 non-recidivists on parole. Six questionnaires were administered: the Biographical Information Questionnaire, the Child Abuse and Trauma scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, the Guilt Inventory, and the Test of Self-Conscious Affect. Data were analyzed via factor analysis, followed by independent samples t-tests which examined contrasts between the means of the 4 factor derived composites. Both hypotheses were confirmed. Recidivators are both significantly more symptomatic and have significantly higher levels of maladaptive interpersonal guilt than non-recidivators. These results support the theoretical assertion that women who are more advanced in their recovery from trauma, and therefore have fewer symptoms and less maladaptive guilt, do not recidivate.

Multiple loss and grief in HIV positive and HIV negative gay men: Catastrophic survivor guilt, proneness to survivor guilt, and coping
Cida Jimenez-Sheppard
Wright Institute
1997
Abstract
The relationships among multiple bereavement, coping, grief, catastrophic survivor guilt, and proneness to survivor guilt was examined in a sample of HIV seropositive positive (n = 22) and seronegative (n = 29) gay men. All subjects were administered the Bereavement Index (Jimenez-Sheppard 1995); The Grief Experience Inventory (Sanders, Mauger, & Strong, 1985); the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (O'Connor, Berry, Weiss, Sampson & Bush 1994); AIDS Crisis Questionnaire (Jimenez-Sheppard, 1995), and The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1988). This study found 4 main conclusions. First among both HIV positive and negative gay men, there was a positive correlation between proneness to survivor guilt and several dimensions of grief while statistically controlling for number, closeness and recency of losses. These grief dimensions are Despair, Guilt, Somatization, Social Isolation, and Atypical Response. Second, proneness to survivor guilt predicted levels of survivor guilt related specifically to the survival of people who died of AIDS (termed catastrophic survivor guilt), again controlling for number, closeness and recency of losses. Third, catastrophic survivor guilt contributes to the current grief experience, over and beyond proneness to survivor guilt, and number of recent losses. These grief dimensions are Denial, Anger, and Depersonalization. Fourth, HIV positive and HIV negative gay men who experienced more recent losses of close relationships used Confrontive and Self-Controlling Coping strategies. Additional analyses found that both HIV positive and HIV negative gay men experience similar levels of survivor guilt and catastrophic survivor guilt, and the loss of a close relationship was positively correlated with chronic manifestation of grief (Loss of Control, Rumination and Depersonalization). This study suggests that HIV positive and HIV negative gay men who experience survivor guilt and catastrophic survivor will experience deep expressions of grief.

Interpersonal guilt and eating disorder symptomatology in college women
Natasha Anne Vilas
Pacific Graduate School of Psychology
1996
Abstract
This study investigated the relationship between eating disorder symptoms, survivor guilt, and separation guilt in female college students who either volunteered or received course credit for their participation (N = 95). The study was correlational and employed the Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire (IGQ) to assess survivor guilt and separation guilt, the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA) as a measure of adaptive guilt, and shame, and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) to assess eating disorder symptomatology. No significant relationship was found between eating disorder symptoms, and each: survivor guilt, and separation guilt. However, a significant relationship was found between eating disorder symptoms and self-hate guilt and eating disorder symptoms and shame.

The relationship between attributional style and interpersonal guilt.
Andrew R. Menaker
California School of Professional Psychology
1995
Abstract
The psychodynamically orientated control mastery theory, and the cognitive-behaviorally orientated theory of attributional style both explain psychopathology using beliefs as primary factors. In addition, control mastery theory empha sizes the role of pathogenic beliefs that give rise to excessive feelings of interpersonal guilt and shame. Control mastery theory (CMT) suggests that aspects of guilt related to a fear of harming others, such as survivor guilt and separation guilt, guilt from feeling overly responsible, omnipotent responsibility guilt, and an overall feeling of badness, self-hate guilt, are important in understanding psychopathology. Survivor guilt is particularly common and may be associated with a variety of pathologies (Weiss, 1986a, 1986b, 1994). The theory of attributional style suggests that people make internal self-statements in an effort to explain both the good and bad events that occur in their lives. These self-statements occur on a spectrum of pessimism/optimism. Pessimistic and optimistic self-statements fall into three dimensions: internal versus external, permanent versus temporary, and specific versus global (Seligman, 1990). The Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire-67 (IGQ-67) is a recently developed instrument that measures the types of guilt emphasized in control mastery theory. The Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) is a widely used measure of attributional style. A pessimistic explanatory style, measured by the ASQ, and interpersonal guilt, measured by the IGQ-67, have both been empirically linked to depression. An association between pessimism and interpersonal guilt has been demonstrated on a small sample using an earlier version of the IGQ. The present correlational study used the following instruments: the ASQ, the IGQ-67, the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), which measures shame, (adaptive) guilt, externalization, detachment, characterological pride, and behavior related pride, and the Guilt Inventory (GI), which measures state guilt, trait guilt, and moral standards. These four instruments along with a demographic questionnaire were administered to a nonclinical sample of college students (n = 71). The hypotheses of the present study predicted a significant relationship between a pessimistic style and interpersonal guilt, particularly survivor guilt. The results of the present study supported the central hypothesis that a pessimistic style is related to survivor guilt . Pessimism was also shown to be related to the other subtypes of guilt. In addition, guilt was shown to be more consistently related to attributional style for good events as opposed to bad events. The implications of the results are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

Other Studies

Discrepancy from the ideal: An exploratory study of the associations between body image and social status.
Alexandria Leedy
Wright Institute
2006
Abstract
This investigation examined relationships between body image and social status measures in a non-clinical population. The Body-Image Ideal Questionnaire (Cash & Szymanski, 1995), MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (Adler, Epel, Castellazzo, & Ickovics, 2000), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977) were administered to 105 participants, 57 women and 48 men. Significant negative correlations were found between body image and social status measures. Women were found to have poorer body image than men, however no significant differences were found between men and women's body image and status correlations. This study suggests that body image, for particular body characteristics, is related to social status, and that men's body image is as related to measures of status as women's. Evolutionary perspectives and areas of future research are discussed.

Positive psychology and psychotherapists
Charlotte Tilson
Wright Institute
2006
Abstract
Positive psychology is a new-yet-old subfield of clinical psychology and psychological science highly relevant to the practice of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy training, literature and lore have traditionally been characterized by a negative bias. The negative bias may impact psychotherapists' beliefs, and result in errors in clinical judgment and practice. This review of theory, research and applications in the field of positive psychology (a) provides an analysis of the relationship between positive psychology and the education, beliefs and practices of psychotherapists in order to generate knowledge relevant to the development of the profession, (b) considers potential benefits and/or dangers to the profession with bringing positive psychology formally into curricula, training and professional practice, and (c) identifies areas for future empirical study. Integration of positive psychology into graduate training programs is recommended as a means of expanding the role of clinicians into prevention and health promotion as well as treatment of illness, thereby potentially increasing well-being at a societal level.

Pilot study of a new hospital suicide risk assessment measure
Emily Diamond
Wright Institute
2004
Abstract
The Suicide Lethality Screening Tool (SLST) is a new organizational tool designed for this study. It was developed to facilitate psychiatric hospital staff's determination of a patient's level of suicide risk, which would then lead directly to one of seven interventions regarding necessary level of patient supervision. Another aim was to create a tool to be used with patients with a variety of diagnoses such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, dual diagnoses, and minor memory or cognitive losses. It was also intended to provide a centralized location for relevant history, current stressors, and level of functioning of the patient. The geropsychiatric unit where it was created and piloted experienced a suicide in 2000, and two serious suicide attempts in 1999. The SLST's 18 items, graded on a scale from 03, were drawn from clinical experience and known risk factors. The SLST was administered to seventy-four psychiatrically hospitalized adults, (males = 23, females = 40, missing data = 11). The patients ranged from 1891 years (average female = 71.4 years, average male = 66.6 years). Fifty-nine participants were assessed upon admission to a geropsychiatric unit. The SLST was administered voluntarily to the remaining 15 participants. Participants also completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS). These measures have been found to be a strong indicator of eventual suicide, and current scope and intensity of suicidality of a patient, respectively. The SLST and the BSS had a correlation of 0.66 (p < 0.01) when each BSS item was scored. A non-significant correlation (0.34) was found between the SLST and BHS. The Rasch partial credit modeling revealed that all but one item (not scored on a Likert scale) contribute to the linear scale of suicide risk. In the two years since its routine use, there have been no attempts or completed suicides at the unit where it was piloted.

A dose-response study of control mastery therapy
Jane Leslie Weisbin
Wright Institute
2003
Abstract
Student therapists are rarely trained to monitor their own treatment effectiveness or to integrate treatment evaluation methods into their practices. However, psychotherapists and students therapists whose practices are guided by Control Mastery Theory have training to think empirically about clinical hypotheses and to use feedback from their patients to assess the success or failure of interventions and of the treatment. Control Mastery research literature has a rich history exploring process-outcome relationships in closely-examined single-case studies. While the efficacy of Control Mastery Therapy has not been tested by randomized clinical trials and therefore is not yet considered an empirically supported therapy, it is a good candidate for effectiveness research. In this study, Control Mastery student therapists collected weekly data from eleven patients in a low-fee outpatient clinic using a standardized outcome measure, the OQ-45.2 (Lambert et al., 1996) and compared that data with that gathered from previous dose-response studies tracking other types of therapy in various settings. Because of the small sample size of this study (N = 11), only one patient reached clinically significant change (recovery) but this study did find that 50% of patients who began treatment in the dysfunctional range reliably improved, and survival analysis suggested that 25% of patients beginning treatment in the dysfunctional range would reliably improve after 14 sessions, 50% after 19 sessions, and 75% after 30 sessions. These figures are not statistically significant, but do compare favorably with prior dose-response literature, though they lean toward the higher number of sessions required. Level of distress at intake was found to be positively correlated with time to improvement, which is also corroborated in several dose-response studies.

Sexual relationships between supervisors and supervisees during psychology graduate training
Leslie Wilson Caldwell
Wright Institute
2002
Abstract
Although emotional and/or physical attraction is a normal response in human relationships, there are ethical guidelines warning against sexual intimacy between supervisors and supervisees. Three hundred seventy-six APA members who graduated from doctoral level clinical and counseling psychology training programs participated in a study on the prevalence of sexual intimacy between supervisors and supervisees during graduate training, and their attitudes concerning the role of consent and coercion within these relationships. The study also inquired about the subject's academic training pertaining to sexual relationships between supervisors and supervisees, and the prevalence of intense emotional and/or sexual attraction between student and supervisor that is neither talked about nor acted on. The survey attained a 35% response rate. While 1% of the male respondents reported sexual contact with an educator, 9.8% of the female respondents reported having had such contact. The typical liaison was a 40 year old married male educator with a 28 year old single female student. Thirty-seven percent of these sexual relationships were with supervisors and occurred most frequently during the first two years of graduate training. Virtually all respondents indicated sexual contact between students and educators who have a working relationship to be ethically inappropriate and harmful to the working relationship, and the majority believed student volition to be partially voluntary/partially coerced. Once these working relationships terminated, there was a significant difference in attitudes between those that did and did not experience such liaisons with the former finding these relationships neither appropriate nor inappropriate, and the later inappropriate and harmful. Sixty-six percent of respondents report receiving no education in the area of sexual ethics; however, 63% recall informal discussions with peers regarding this subject. While in training, 18% of the respondents indicated they had experienced intense emotional and/or sexual attraction towards an educator, while 21% experienced an educator's attraction towards them. Finally, of the 318 subjects who have been in the role of an educator/supervisor, 4% admit to sexual contact with a student, while 27% have experienced intense emotional and/or physical attraction towards a student.

A survey of psychologists' attitudes, opinions, and clinical experiences with animal abuse
Pauline Nelson
Wright Institute
2002
Abstract
Previous literature suggests a link between interpersonal violence and violence against other species. It is common for companion animals to be victims of domestic violence, and some individuals who commit violent criminal acts have histories of cruelty towards other species. Non-human animals occupy a position of less power in our culture as do children. Psychologists are not allowed to report animal abuse as they are mandated to report child abuse. Two hundred and three U.S. psychologists completed surveys about their attitudes towards animal abuse, their experiences treating clients who abuse animals, and their opinions toward the possibility of changing the law and ethics code to include the right to report animal abuse. Psychologists believe that the “link” between violence towards humans and other species exists. Although 94% of psychologists believed animal abuse to be connected to other behavior disturbances, only 14% screen for this behavior. More than half of psychologists (55%) favored the right to report animal abuse. Female psychologists were significantly more likely to favor of the right to report animal abuse. Results of analysis of 69 cases of animal abuse revealed the majority of perpetrators to be child and adolescent males. Diagnoses most often indicated fell under DSM-IV categories of Disorders Usually Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence, and Mood Disorders. The majority of cases (71%) involved “direct physical violence with intent to harm an animal”. Species most often targeted were cats and dogs. Animals often lived in the same home as the perpetrator or were identified as a “pet” of the perpetrator. In slightly less than half of cases other forms of domestic violence were present in the home, and in more than half of them violence was directed against either both female spouses and child(ren), or child(ren) only. Results are consistent with prior findings about the nature and context of animal abuse. Results suggest that although psychologists recognize the “link” between interpersonal violence and violence against other species, they are divided about allowing psychologists to report animal abuse.

The relationship between gender traits, sex role egalitarian attitudes, attachment styles, and life satisfaction
Joseph Martin Smith
Wright Institute
1998
Abstract
This study examined the relationships between gender traits, egalitarian sex-role attitudes, attachment styles, and life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that androgyny would be associated with a secure attachment style, greater overall life satisfaction, and greater satisfaction in love relationships. It was also hypothesized that masculinity would be associated with an avoidant attachment style, and that femininity would be associated with an anxious/ambivalent attachment style, with both being associated with less satisfaction in love relationships. It was believed that an egalitarian sex-role attitude would also be associated with a secure attachment style and greater life satisfaction. Finally, it was expected that a secure attachment style would be associated with greater overall life satisfaction, greater satisfaction in love relationships, and that the converse would be true for the less secure attachment styles. Post-hoc analyses explored differences between men and women on each of the measures, and the relationship between gender traits and gender attitudes. The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was utilized to measure gender traits, the Sex-Role Egalitarian Scale (SRES) was utilized to assess gender attitudes, the Adult Attachment Scale-Revised (AAS-R) was utilized to measure adult attachment styles, and the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) was utilized to assess levels of life satisfaction. Volunteer subjects included 112 college students recruited from two universities--one located in the midwest, and one in the southeast. A number of this study's hypotheses were supported. Androgyny was associated with dimensions of the secure attachment style, and with overall life satisfaction. Additionally, dimensions of the secure attachment style were related to greater levels of overall life satisfaction and greater levels of satisfaction in love relationships. Sex-role Egalitarianism was not associated with attachment styles, with satisfaction in love relationships, or with overall life satisfaction. Results of the post-hoc analyses are reported, the implications of the findings of this study are discussed, and recommendations for future research are made.

The Relationship Between Religion, Spirituality, and Guilt
Ian Middelkamp
University of Western Ontario
2008
Abstract
This study focused on strengthening earlier research concerning religion and guilt. 28 participants, (15 female, 13 male) from the University of Western Ontario filled out religious orientation questionnaires discerning religious, spiritual, or non-spiritual/non-religious orientations, and Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaires (IGQ-67). The expected outcome was that religious participants would have the highest levels of guilt, followed by the spiritually oriented, while the non-religious/non-spiritual participants would have the lowest levels. Results supported that non-spiritual, non-religious individuals had lowest levels of guilt, but results were non-significant (F (2, 25) = 3.197, p<.05). The failure of the study to find significance was assumed the result of inadequate sample size leading to high variability due to error.

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